general navigation structure general satellite info ilrs support retroreflector info center of mass site performance info

GLONASS

Jump to: Mission Objectives, Mission Instrumentation, Mission Parameters, Additional Information

Mission Photos:
Early GLONASS GLONASS-K GLONASS-M
GLONASS Satellite GLONASS K Satellite GLONASS M Satellite
  Image courtesy of Russian SpaceWeb Image courtesy of Russian SpaceWeb
Mission Objectives:

The Global Navigation Satellite System (GLObal'naya Navigatsionnay Sputnikovaya Sistema, GLONASS), is based on a constellation of active satellites, sponsored by the Russian Federation Ministry of Defense, which continuously transmit coded signals in two frequency bands, which can be received by users anywhere on the Earth's surface to identify their position and velocity in real time. The primary application of GLONASS is positioning and time transfer. All the satellites weigh approximately 1400 kg and are in circular orbits with perigees approximately 19,000 km; with eccentricities between 0.0001 and 0.0035; with inclinations between 64.2 and 65.6 degrees; and with orbital periods of 676 minutes.

The system is a counterpart to the United States Global Positioning System (GPS) and both systems share the same principles in the data transmission and positioning methods. On 12 October 1982, the first GLONASS satellites were placed into orbit, and the experimental work with GLONASS began. Over this time span, the system was tested, and different aspects were improved, including the satellites themselves. Although the initial plans pointed to 1991 for a complete operational system, the deployment of the full constellation of satellites has been completed in late 1995, early 1996. GLONASS-1 through -61 are no longer in service.

Note: GLONASS-40 and -41 were launched with the Etalon-1 satellite. GLONASS-42 and -43 were launched with Etalon-2.

The GLONASS, like GPS, consists of three segments, the SPACE, CONTROL, and USER segments:

  • The SPACE segment of GLONASS, is formed by 24 satellites located on three orbital planes. Each satellite is identified by its slot number, which defines the orbital plane (1-8, 9-16,17-24) and the location within the plane. The three orbital planes are separated 120 degrees. Within a three orbital plane, the eight satellites are separated by 45 degrees. The GLONASS orbits are circular orbits of 19,140 km, with an inclination of 64.8 degrees and a period of 11 hours 15 minutes 44 seconds.
  • The CONTROL segment of GLONASS is entirely located in former Soviet Union territory. The Ground Control Center and Time Standards is located in Moscow and the telemetry and tracking stations is located in St. Petersburg, Ternopol, Eniseisk, Komsomolsk-na-Amure.
  • The USER segment consists of antennas and receiver-processors that provide positioning, velocity and precise timing to the user.

The expected life of each GLONASS satellite is 3 to 5 years.

Mission Instrumentation:

GLONASS satellites have the following instrumentation onboard:

  • Solar array
  • 12 primary antennas for L-band transmissions
  • Cesium atomic clock
  • Retroreflector array
Mission Parameters:

GLONASS Constellation Table

Western
GLONASS
Number
Russian
GLONASS
Number
Kosmos
Number
COSPAR
ID
ILRS
Satellite
ID
ILRS
SIC
Satellite
Catalog
(NORAD)
Number
Orbit
Plane
Freq.
Channel
Slot Launch
Date
Date
Withdrawn
Type
M?
40 1987 1989-001A 8900101 6666 19749 10-Jan-89
41 1988 1989-001B 8900102 7777 19750 10-Jan-89
44 2079 1990-045A 9004501 1111 20619 19-May-90
47 2109 1990-110A 9011001 2222 21006 8-Dec-90
49 249 2111 1990-110C 9011003 9049 21008 8-Dec-90 15-Aug-96
50 750 2139 1991-025A 9102501 3333 21216 4-Apr-91 14-Nov-94
51 753 2140 1991-025B 9102502 4444 21217 4-Apr-91 4-Jun-93
52 754 2141 1991-025C 9102503 9052 21218 4-Apr-91 16-Jun-92
53 768 2177 1992-005A 9200501 9053 21853 29-Jan-92 29-Jun-93
54 769 2178 1992-005B 9200502 9054 21854 29-Jan-92 25-Jun-97
55 771 2179 1992-005C 9200503 9055 21855 29-Jan-92 21-Dec-96
56 774 2206
(2204)
1992-047A 9204701 9056 22056 30-Jul-92 26-Aug-96
57 756 2204
(2205)
1992-047B 9204702 9057 22057 30-Jul-92 4-Aug-97
58 772 2205
(2206)
1992-047C 9204703 9058 22058 30-Jul-92 27-Aug-94
59 773 2234 1993-010A 9301001 9059 22512 17-Feb-93 17-Aug-94
60 757 2236
(2235)
1993-010B 9301002 9060 22513 17-Feb-93 23-Aug-97
61 759 2235
(2236)
1993-010C 9301003 9061 22514 17-Feb-93 4-Aug-97
62 760 2276
(2275)
1994-021A 9402101 9062 23043 3 24 17 11-Apr-94 9-Sep-99
63 761 2277
(2276)
1994-021B 9402102 9063 23044 11-Apr-94 29-Aug-97
64 758 2275
(2277)
1994-021C 9402103 9064 23045 3 10 18 11-Apr-94 15-Jan-00
65 767 2287 1994-050A 9405001 9065 23203 2 22 12 11-Aug-94 3-Feb-99
66 775 2289
(2288)
1994-050B 9405002 9066 23204 2 22 16 11-Aug-94 28-Sep-00
67 770 2288
(2289)
1994-050C 9405003 9067 23205 2 9 14 11-Aug-94 15-Jan-00
68 763 2295
(2294)
1994-076A 9407601 9068 23396 1 21 3 20-Nov-94 5-Oct-99
69 764 2296
(2295)
1994-076B 9407602 9069 23397 1 13 6 20-Nov-94 30-Nov-99
70 762 2294
(2296)
1994-076C 9407603 9070 23398 1 12 4 20-Nov-94 19-Nov-99
71 765 2307 1995-009A 9500901 9071 23511 3 1 20 7-Mar-95 19-Nov-99
72 766 2308 1995-009B 9500902 9072 23512 3 10 22 7-Mar-95 5-Feb-01
73 777 2309 1995-009C 9500903 9073 23513 7-Mar-95 26-Dec-97
74 780 2316 1995-037A 9503701 9074 23620 2 4 15 24-Jul-95 6-Apr-99
75 781 2317 1995-037B 9503702 9075 23621 2 9 10 24-Jul-95 15-Oct-01
76 785 2318 1995-037C 9503703 9076 23622 2 4 11 24-Jul-95 6-Apr-01
77
(ILRS: 79)
776 2323 1995-068C 9506803 9079 23736 2 6 9 14-Dec-95 28-Nov-00
78 778 2324 1995-068B 9506802 9078 23735 2 11 15 14-Dec-95
79
(ILRS: 77)
782 2325 1995-068A 9506801 9077 23734 2 6 13 14-Dec-95 15-Oct-01
80 786 2362
(2364)
1998-077C 9807703 9080 25595 1 7 7 30-Dec-98
81 784 2363 1998-077B 9807702 9081 25594 1 8 8 30-Dec-98
82
(ILRS: 80)
779 2364
(2362)
1998-077A 9807701 9082 25593 1 2 1 30-Dec-98
83 783 2374
(2376)
2000-063C 0006303 TBD 26566 3 10 18 13-Oct-00
84 787 2375
(2374)
2000-063A 0006301 TBD 26564 3 5 17 13-Oct-00
85
(ILRS: 84)
788 2376
(2375)
2000-063B 0006302 9084 26565 3 3 24 13-Oct-00
86 790 2380 2001-053C 0105303 9086 26989 1 9 6 01-Dec-01
87 789 2381 2001-053B 0105302 9087 26988 1 12 3 01-Dec-01
88 711 2382 2001-053A 0105301 9088 26987 1 7 5 01-Dec-01 M (Proto)
89 791 2394 2002-060A 0206001 9089 27617 3 10 22 25-Dec-02
90 792 2395
(2396)
2002-060C 0206003 9090 27619 3 8 21 25-Dec-02
91 793 2396
(2395)
2002-060B 0206002 9091 27618 3 11 23 25-Dec-02
92 701 2404 2003-056A 0305601 9092 28112 1 1 6 10-Dec-03 M
93 794 2402 2003-056B 0305602 9093 28113 1 1 2 10-Dec-03
94 795 2403 2003-056C 0305603 9094 28114 1 6 4 10-Dec-03
95 712 2411 2004-053B 0405302 9095 28509 1 5 7 26-Dec-04 M
96 797 2412 2004-053C 0405303 9096 28510 1 6 8 26-Dec-04
97 796 2413 2004-053A 0405301 9097 28508 1 7 1 26-Dec-04
98 798 2417 2005-050C 0505003 9098 28917 3 10 22 25-Dec-05
99 713 2418 2005-050B 0505002 9099 28916 3 2 24 25-Dec-05 M
100 714 2419 2005-050A 0505001 9100 28915 3 3 23 25-Dec-05 M
101 715 2424 2006-062C 0606203 9101 29672 2 4 14 25-Dec-06 M
102 716 2425 2006-062A 0606201 9102 29670 2 0 15 25-Dec-06 M
103 717 2426 2006-062B 0606202 9103 29671 2 4 10 25-Dec-06 M
104 718 2431 2007-052C 070520c 9104 32277 3 -1 17 26-Oct-07 M
105 719 2432 2007-052B 0705202 9105 32276 3 2 20 26-Oct-07 M
106 720 2433 2007-052A 0705201 9106 32275 3 3 19 26-Oct-07 M
107 721 2434 2007-065A 0706501 9107 32393 2 -2 13 25-Dec-07 M
108 722 2435 2007-065B 0706502 9108 32394 2 -2 9 25-Dec-07 M
109 723 2436 2007-065C 0706503 9109 32395 2 0 11 25-Dec-07 M
110 724 2442 2008-046A 0804601 9110 33378 3 -3 18 25-Sep-08 M
111 725 2443 2008-046B 0804602 9111 33379 3 -1 21 25-Sep-08 M
112 726 2444 2008-046C 0804603 9112 33380 3 -3 22 25-Sep-08 M
113 728 2447 2008-067A 0806701 9113 33466 1 5 3 25-Dec-08 M
114 728 2448 2008-067C 0806703 9114 33468 1 1 2 25-Dec-08 M
115 729 2449 2008-067B 0806702 9115 33467 1 6 8 25-Dec-08 M
116 730 2456 2009-070A 0907001 9116 36111 1 1 1 14-Dec-09 M
117 733 2457 2009-070B 0907002 9117 36112 1 4 6 14-Dec-09 M
118 734 2458 2009-070C 0907003 9118 36113 1 5 5 14-Dec-09 M
119 731 2459 2010-007A 1000701 9119 36400 3 -3 22 02-Mar-2010 M
120 732 2460 2010-007C 1000703 9120 36402 3 3 23 02-Mar-2010 M
121 735 2461 2010-007B 1000702 9121 36401 3 2 24 02-Mar-2010 M
122 736 2464 2010-041C 1004103 9122 37139 2 -1 16 02-Sep-2010 M
123 737 2465 2010-041B 1004102 9123 37138 2 -1 12 02-Sep-2010 M
124 738 2466 2010-041A 1004101 9124 37137       02-Sep-2010 M
125 801 2471 2011-009A 1100901 9125 37372 3 -5 (20) 26-Feb-2011 K
126 742 2474 2011-055A 1105501 9126 37829 1 6 4 02-Oct-2011 M
127 743 2475 2011-065C 1106403 9127 37869 1 6 8 04-Nov-2011 M
128 744 2476 2011-065A 1106401 9128 37867 1 5 3 04-Nov-2011 M
129 745 2477 2011-065B 1106402 9129 37868 1 5 7 04-Nov-2011 M
130 746 2478 2011-071A 1107101 9130 37938       28-Nov-2011 M
131 747 2485 2013-019A 1301901 9131 39155 1 -4 2 26-Apr-2013 M
132 754 2491 2014-012A 1401201 9132 39620 3 -3 18 23-Mar-2014 M
133 755 2500 2014-032A 1403201 9133 40001 3 4 21 14-Jun-2014   M+
134 702K 2501 2014-075A 1407501 9134 40315 2 -6 9 30-Nov-2014   K1
135 751 2514 2016-008A 1600801 9135 41330 3 4 17 07-Feb-2016   M
136 753 2516 2016-032A 1603201 9136 41554 2 0 11 29-May-2016   M

Notes:

  • NORAD Catalog Number is also known as U.S. Space Command (USSPACECOM) object number and NASA catalog number.
  • The numbers listed first in the "Kosmos Numbers" column are the designators assigned by the Russian Federation. Where these differ from the designators assigned by the United States, the latter are given in parentheses. (Editor's note: designators that differ are in red parentheses)
  • Channel number, k, indicates L1 and L2 carrier frequencies:
       L1 = 1602. + 0.5625 k (MHz) k
       L2 = 1246. + 0.4375 k (MHz) k
  • Date Withdrawn: The date listed is the date the satellite was removed from service (Moscow Time) as reported by the Coordinational Scientific Information Center, Moscow.
  • The GLONASS numbering scheme used in this table includes the 8 "dummy" satellites orbited as ballast along with "real" satellites on the first 7 GLONASS launches. The second number in the "GLONASS Numbers" column is that assigned by the Russian Space Forces.
  • New GLONASS channel allocations were introduced in September 1993 aimed at reducing interference to radio astronomy. Note the use of the same channel on pairs of antipodal satellites.
  • This version of the table corrects the International ID and NORAD Catalog Number of GLONASS 786, 784, and 779.
  • Satellite identifiers compiled by Richard B. Langley, Dept. of Geodesy and Geomatics Engineering, University of New Brunswick (lang@unb.ca).
  • GLONASS-80 through -82 naming conventions were changed in the table above based on research by Werner Gurtner and Roger Wood. The adopted numbers now agree with both the Russian constellation status and the NORAD two-line elements.
  • Additional Information:

    Web sites:

    Publications:

    • Appleby, G. and Otsubo, T., "Comparisons of SLR Observations and Orbits with GLONASS and GPS Microwave Orbits", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
    • Barlier, F., Berger, C., Bonnefond, P., Exertier, P., Laurain, O., Mangin, J.F. and Torre, J.M., "Laser-based validation of GLONASS orbits by short-arc technique", Journal of Geodesy Vol. 75, Num. 11, pp. 600-612, 2001.
    • Eanes, R.J., Nerem, R.S., Abusali, P.A.M., Bamford, W., Key, K., Ries, J.C., and Schutz, B.E., "GLONASS Orbit Determination at the Center for Space Research", presented at International GLONASS Experiment (IGEX-98) Workshop, Nashville, Tennessee, September 13-14, 1999.
    • Mangin, J.F., Torre, J.M., Feraudy, D., Furia, M., Journet, A., Vigouroux, G., Berger, C., Barlier, F., and Exertier, P., "GLONASS Observations at the LLR station at Grasse Corrections Related to the Laser Signature Effect and to the Location of the Centre of Mass", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
    • Mitrikas, V.V., Revnivykh, S.G., and Bykhanov, E.V., "WGS84/PZ90 Transformation Parameters Determination Based on Laser and Ephemeris Long-Term GLONASS Orbital Data Processing", Proc. of the 11th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Deggendorf, Germany, September 21-25, p. 279, 1998.
    • Otsubo, T., Appleby, G.M., and Gibbs, P., "Systematic Range Bias Related to GLONASS Reflector Array", Presentation to 12th International Workshop on Laser Ranging, Matera, Italy, November 13-17, 2000.
    • Otsubo, T., G M Appleby and P Gibbs, GLONASS laser ranging accuracy with satellite signature effect, Surveys in Geophysics, 22, 6, 507-514, 2001.
    • Slater, J., Noll, C., and Gowey, K., "International GLONASS Experiment IGEX-98 Conference Proceedings", Pasadena, CA: Jet Propulsion Laboratory, May, 2000.
    • Ziebart, M., and Dare, P., "Analytical solar radiation pressure modeling for GLONASS using a pixel array", J GEODESY, v.75, 11, 587-599, Nov., 2001.